“What’s that flower?” The Family asked me as I was stalking a Ceropegia. I looked around at the pentagonal white shapes on a stalk that was about 20 centimeters high. “I don’t know”, I said, as I took a photo for later reference. She soon found that it was not a flower. A flower has sexual organs, and this did not have any. Mandar explained that it was the opened fruit of the Dipcadi montanum. I’d posted about this plant from the Hyacinth family last year after a single sighting.

Dipcadi montanum fruit and flower

This year I’d seen it several times. In fact just a few minutes before I’d seen another stalk which had started fruiting. You can see the fruit towards of the bottom of the stalk in the photo here: a dark green knob. The chance sighting I had last year was of the D. montanum plant standing in a field of bladderwort (Utricularia). Each sighting this year showed the same thing. In fact, the purple spots which you see in the featured photo are purple bladderwort. The linkage between the two just got stronger in my mind because of this statistical improvement. Typically the bladderwort grows in poor soil, and gets nourishment from digesting small insects. There is evidence of a rich ecosystem which grows inside the bladder. Does this ecosystem produce benefits to the thin soil around it which are reaped by the bulbs of the Dipcadi? I don’t see anything written about it.

Dipcadi montanum

I got a sharp photo (above) of a flowering Dipcadi on the nearby lateritic plateau of Chilkewadi. The spots of white that you see in the photo are of globular pipewort (Eriocaulon sedgewickii). These are known to grow in association with bladderwort. In fact the field had some, although they do not appear in the photo. The triple association of Dipcadi, bladderwort and pipewort is very strong, and cries out for an explanation.

Two herbs

I saw a single stalk bearing these white flowers sticking out of a green meadow some distance away. It was foggy on the Kaas plateau. The rain had left little droplets of water suspended from the flowers. As I tried to take photos, I thought that they reminded me of lilies.Flowers of Dipcadi ursulae Later I wasn’t sure whether it was a lily or a confusingly similar orchid. I thought I would see it again elsewhere, but didn’t come across it later. As a result, this somewhat noisy photo is the only one I have.

When I eventually identified it as Dipcadi montanum (conflated with D. ursulae by Ingalhalikar), it turned out that its classification is contentious. It used to be placed in the family Liliaceae. By the time Ingalhalikar wrote his book it had been moved to family Asparagaceae. Recent papers split off the subfamily and class it as a separate family Hyacinthaceae. I’ll go with this. Classification of angiosperms is being transformed by molecular data, so the older classifications are never going to come back.

This herb is said to be widespread but rare and endangered. Its claimed rarity agrees with my personal observation. In India it has been reported from various parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Bihar, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh. Eflora India has photos which show bladderwort (Utricularia) growing nearby. Interestingly, my only photo of bladderwort came from the same patch where I saw these flowers. Is there really some connection between them?

At the other end of the scale of rarity were chest-high bushes of the common hill borage, with the double-barrelled name of Adelocaryum coelestinum. The pale blue flowers of this forget-me-not (family Boraginaceae) grow along long stalks, as in the featured photo. The tiny five-petalled white flowers have a beautiful blue center. They are widely spotted in Maharashtra and Goa, but probably also grow in neighbouring states, including arid Gujarat.

I lumped these two together because I couldn’t find any documented use for them, neither as remedies against disease, nor as food. As of now, it seems that they are just beautiful flowers which we can enjoy looking at.